In the Arctic Seas Part 29

Two yellow glass beads, a glass seal with symbol of Freemasonry.

A 4-inch block, strapped, with copper hook and thimble, probably for the boat's sheet.

Relics seen in lat. 69 09' N., long. 99 24' W., not brought away, 30th of May, 1859:--

A large boat, measuring 28 ft. in extreme length, 7 ft. 3 in. in breadth, 2 ft. 4 in. in depth. The markings on her stem were--"XXI.

W. Con. N61., APr. 184." It appears that the fore part of the stem has been cut away, probably to reduce weight, and part of the letters and figures removed. An oak sledge under the boat, 23 ft. 4 in. long, and 2 ft. wide; 6 paddles, about 60 fathoms of deep-sea lead line, ammunition, 4 cakes of navy chocolate, shoemaker's box with implements complete, small quantities of tobacco, a small pair of very stout shooting boots, a pair of very heavy iron-shod knee boots, carpet boots, sea boots and shoes--in all seven or eight pairs: two rolls of sheet lead, elm tingles for repairing the boat, nails of various sizes for boat, and sledge irons, three small axes, a broken saw, leather cover of a sextant case, a chain-cable punch, silk handkerchiefs (black, white, and colored), towels, sponge, tooth-brush, hair comb, a mackintosh, gun cover (marked in paint "A.

12"), twine, files, knives; a small worsted-work slipper, lined with calf-skin, bound with red riband; a great quantity of clothing, and a wolf-skin robe; part of a boat's sail of No. 8 canvas, whale-line rope with yellow mark, and white line with red mark; 24 iron stanchions, 9-1/2 inches high, for supporting a weather cloth round the boat; a stanchion for supporting a ridge pole at a height of 3 ft. 9 in. above the gunwale.

Relics found about Ross Cairn, on Point Victory, May and June, 1859, brought away:--

A 6-inch dip circle by Robinson, marked I 22. A case of medicines, consisting of 25 small bottles, canister of pills, ointment, plaster, oiled silk, etc. A 2-foot rule, two joints of the cleaning rod of a gun, and two small copper spindles, probably for dog-vanes of boats. The circular brass plate broken out of a wooden gun-case, and engraved "C. H. Osmer, R.N." The field glass and German silver top of a 2-foot telescope, a coffee canister, a piece of a brass curtain rod. The record tin and the record, dated 25th of April, 1848. A 6-inch double frame sextant, on which the owner's name is engraved, "Frederick Hornby, R.N."

Found in a small cairn on the south side of Back Bay:--

A tin record case and record.

Seen about Ross Cairn, Point Victory, not brought away:--

Four sets of boat's cooking apparatus complete, iron hoops, 4 feet of a copper lightning conductor, hollow brass curtain-rod three quarters of an inch in diameter, 3 pickaxes, 1 shovel, old canvas, a pile of warm clothing and blankets 4 feet high, 2 tin canteens stamped "89 Co., Wm. Hedges," "88 Co., Wm. Heather," and a third one not marked. A small pannikin, made on board out of a 2 lb.

preserved-meat tin, and marked "W. Mark;" a small deal box for gun wadding, the heavy iron work of a large boat, part of a canvas tent, part of an oar sawed longitudinally and a blanket nailed to its flat side, three boat-hook staves, strips of copper, a 9-inch single block strapped, a piece of rope and spun yarn. Among the clothing was found a stocking marked "W," green, and a fragment of one marked "W. S."

Relics obtained at the Northern Cairn, near Cape Felix, May, 1859:--

Fragments of a boat's ensign, metal lid of a powder-case, two eye pieces of sextant tubes, brass button; worsted glove, colors red, white and blue; bung-stave of a marine's water keg or bottle, brass ornaments to a marine's shako; brass screw for screwing down lid, also a copper hinge of the lid of powder-case; a few patent wire cartridges containing large shot; part of a pair of steel spectacles, glass being replaced by wood, having a narrow slit in it; two small rib bones, probably out of salt pork; six or eight packets of needles; small flannel cartridge containing an ounce of damaged powder; a small, roughly made copper apparatus for cooking; some brimstone matches. Piece of white paper folded up found in the North Cairn, two pike-heads, narrow strip of white paper, found under one of the tent places; their tent places were within a few yards of the cairn.

Beside a small cairn, about three miles north of Point Victory, was a pickaxe, with broken handle; brought away an empty tea or coffee canister.

Articles noticed about the North Cairn, not brought away:--

Fragments of two broken bottles, several pieces of broken basins or cups, blue and white delftware, hoops of marine's water keg, small iron hoops, fragments of white line, spun yarn, canvas, and twine; three small canvas tents, under which lay a bear-skin and fragments of blankets; two blanket frocks, several old mitts, stockings, gloves, pilot cloth and box cloth jackets and trousers, large shot, piece of tobacco and broken pipe, metal part of powder-case, top of tin canister, marked "cheese," preserved-potato tin, feathers of ptarmigan, and salt-meat bones.

Seen near Cape Maria Louisa:--

Part of a drift tree, white spruce fir, 18 feet long, 10 inches in diameter; it appeared to have but recently (_i.e._, since thrown on the coast) been sawed longitudinally down the centre, and one-half of it removed.

Relics obtained from the Boothian Esquimaux, near the Magnetic Pole, in March and April, 1859:--

Seven knives made by the natives out of materials obtained from the last expedition, one knife without a handle, one spear-head and staff (the latter has broken off), two files; a large spoon or scoop, the handle of pine or bone, the bowl of musk-ox horn; six silver spoons and forks, the property of Sir John Franklin, Lieutenants H. D. Vesconte and Fairholme, A. M'Donald, Assistant-Surgeon, and Lieutenant E. Couch (supposed from the initial letter T and crest a lion's head); a small portion of a gold watch-chain, a broken piece of ornamental work apparently silver gilt, a few small naval and other metal buttons, a silver medal obtained by Mr. M'Donald as a prize for superior attainments at a medical examination in Edinburgh April, 1838: some bows and arrows, in which wood, iron, or copper has been used in the construction--of no other interest.

_Remarks upon these Articles._

The spear-staff measures 6 feet 3 inches in length, and appears to have been part of a light boat's gunwale: it measured (before being partially rounded to adapt it to its present use) about 1-1/2 by 1-3/8 inches, is made of English oak, and upon the side has been painted white over green. The spear-head is of steel, riveted to two pieces of hoop, with bone between, and lashed on to the staff. The rivets are of copper nails. The native who sold it said he himself got it from the boat in the Fish River. Another spear of the same kind was seen. The knives are made either of iron or steel, riveted to two strips of hoop, between which the handle of wood is inserted, and rivets passed through, securing them together.

The rivets are almost all made out of copper nails, such as would be found in a copper-fastened boat, but those which have been examined do not bear the Government mark. It is probable that most of the boats of the 'Erebus' and 'Terror' were built by contract, and therefore would not have the broad arrow stamped upon their iron and copper work. One small knife appears to have been a surgical instrument. A large knife obtained in April bears some marking, such as a sword or a cutlass might have. The man who sold it said he bought it from another, who picked it up on the land where the ship was driven ashore by the ice, and where the white people had thrown it away; it was then about as long as his arm. This was the first information he received of one of the ships having drifted on shore.

One knife and one file are stamped with the broad arrow. The handles are variously composed of oak, ash, pine, mahogany, elm, and bone.

The spoons and forks were readily sold for a few needles each, also the buttons, which they wore as ornaments on their dresses. Bows and arrows were readily exchanged for knives. Previously to the stranding on the neighboring shore of the last expedition these people must have been almost destitute of wood or iron. Some of them had even got only bone knives and spear-points. Some of their sledges were seen, consisting of two rolls of seal-skin, flattened and frozen, to serve as runners, and connected together by cross bars of bones. Many more knives, bows and buttons, similar to those brought away, might have been obtained, but no personal or important relics.

Seen in a Snow-Hut in lat. 70-1/2 deg. N., 20th of April, 1859, not brought away:--

Two wooden shovels, one of them made of mahogany board, some spear-handles and a bow of English wood, a deal case which might have served for a telescope or barometer. Its external dimensions were:--length, 3 ft. 1 in.; depth, 3-1/2 in.; width, 9 in.; two brass hinges remained attached to it.

Relics obtained from the Esquimaux near Cape Norton, upon the East Coast of King William Island, in May, 1859:--

Two tablespoons; upon one is scratched "W. W.," on the other "W.

G.;" these bear the Franklin crest; two table forks, one bearing the Franklin crest; the other is also crested, probably Captain Crozier's; silversmith's name is "I. West;" two teaspoons, one engraved "A. M. D." (A. M'Donald), the other bears the Fairholme crest and motto; handle of a dessert knife, into which had been inserted a razor (since broken off) by Milliken, Strand; buttons, wood and iron, were here in abundance, but as enough of these had already been obtained no more were purchased.

Taken out of some deserted snow-huts near here, some scraps of different kinds of wood, such as could not be obtained from a boat--teak or African oak.

Found lying about the skeleton, 9 miles eastward of Cape Herschel, May, 1859:--The tie of black silk neckerchief; fragments of a double-breasted blue cloth waistcoat, with covered silk buttons, and edged with braid; a scrap of a colored cotton shirt, silk covered buttons of blue cloth great-coat, a small clothes-brush, a horn pocket-comb, a leathern pocket-book, which fell to pieces when thawed and dried; it contained 9 or 10 letters, a few leaves apparently blank; a sixpence, date 1831; and a half-sovereign, dated 1844.

Articles seen among the natives at Cape Norton, not purchased,--Bows made of wood, knives, uniform and plain buttons, a sledge made of two long pieces of hard wood.

From beside an Esquimaux stone-mark, on the east side of Montreal Island:--Part of a preserved-meat tin, painted red; part of the rim of some strong copper case or vessel; pieces of iron hoop, two pieces of flat iron, an iron hook bolt, a piece of sheet copper.

Articles seen about a snow-hut near Point Booth, not purchased:--Eight or 10 fir poles, varying from 5 feet to 10 feet in length, the stoutest being 2-1/2 inches in diameter. Two wooden snow shovels about 3-1/2 feet long, and made of pieces of plank painted white or pale yellow; it occurred to me that the pieces of plank might have been the bottom boards of a boat. There was abundance of wood fashioned into smaller articles.

Contents of Boat's Medicine Chest:--

One bottle labelled as zinzib. R. pulv., full; ditto, spirit. rect., empty; ditto, mur. hydrarg. seven-eighths full; ditto, ol.

caryphyll., one-fifth full; ditto, ipec. P. co., full; ditto, ol.

menth. pip., empty; ditto, liq. ammon. fort., three-quarters full; ditto, ol. olivac., full; ditto, tinct. opii. camph., three-quarters full; ditto, vin. sem. colch., full; ditto, quarter full; ditto, calomel, full (broken); ditto, hydrarg. hit. oxyd., full; ditto, pulv. gregor, full (broken); ditto, magnes. carb., full; ditto, camphor, full; two bottles tinc. tolut., each quarter full; one bottle ipec. R. pulv., full; ditto, jalap R. pulv., full; ditto, scammon. pulv., full; ditto, quinac bisulph., empty; ditto (not labelled), tinct. opii., three-quarters full; one box (apparently) purgative pills, full; ditto, ointment, shrunk; ditto, emp.

adhesiv., full; one probang, one pen wrapped up in lint, one lead pencil, one pewter syringe, two small tubes (test) wrapped up in lint, one farthing, bandages, oil silk, lint, thread.

No. IV.




From 1849 to 1859.


Fellow of Trinity College, Professor of Geology in the University of Dublin, and President of the Geological Society of Dublin.

The map which accompanies this geological description is arranged from the specimens brought home by Captain F. L. M'Clintock, R.N., from the four Arctic Expeditions in which he served from 1848 to 1859. These specimens are all deposited in the Museum of the Royal Dublin Society, and form a more extensive and better collection of Arctic rocks and fossils than is to be found in any other museum in Europe.

It will be most convenient to describe the geology of the Arctic Islands by the formations which are to be found there, which are the following:--

1. The Granitic and Granitoid Rocks.

2. The Upper Silurian Rocks.

3. The Carboniferous Rocks.

Chapter end

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