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The Mechanical Properties of Wood Part 17

_Compression parallel to grain_: This test will be on specimens 2" X 2" X 8" in size. On 20 per cent of these tests load-compression curves for a 6-inch centrally located gauge length will be taken. Readings will be continued until the elastic limit is well passed. The other 80 per cent of the tests will be made for the purpose of obtaining the maximum load only.

_Compression perpendicular to grain_: This test will be on specimens 2" X 2" X 6" in size. The bearing plates will be 2 inches wide. The rate of descent of the moving head will be 0.024 inch per minute. The load-compression curve will be plotted to 0.1 inch compression and the test will then be discontinued.

_Hardness_: The tool shown in Fig. 43 (an adaptation of the apparatus used by the German investigator, Janka) will be used.

The rate of descent of the moving head will be 0.25 inch per minute. When the penetration has progressed to the point at which the plate "_a_" becomes tight, due to being pressed against the wood, the load will be read and recorded.

Two penetrations will be made on a tangential surface, two on a radial, and one on each end of each specimen tested. The choice between the two radial and between the two tangential surfaces and the distribution of the penetrations over the surfaces will be so made as to get a fair average of heart and sap, slow and fast growth, and spring and summer wood. Specimens will be 2" X 2" X 6".

_Shear_: The tests will be made with a tool slightly modified from that shown in Circular 38. The speed of descent of head will be 0.015 inch per minute. The only measurements to be made are those of the shearing area. The offset will be 1/8 inch.

Specimens will be 2" X 2" X 2-1/2" in size. (For definition of offset and form of test specimen, see Fig. 38.)

_Cleavage_: The cleavage tests will be made on specimens of the form and size shown in Fig. 45. The apparatus will be as shown in Fig. 44. The maximum load only will be taken and the result expressed in pounds per inch of width. The speed of the moving head will be 0.25 inch per minute.

_Moisture Determinations_

Moisture determinations will be made on all specimens tested except those to be photographed or kept for exhibit. A 1-inch disk will be cut from near the point of failure of bending and compression parallel specimens, from the portion under the plate in the case of the compression perpendicular specimens, and from the centre of the hardness test specimens. The beads from the shear specimens will be used as moisture disks. In the case of the cleavage specimens a piece 1/2 inch thick will be split off parallel to the failure and used as a moisture disk.

RECORDS

All records will be standard.

PHOTOGRAPHS

_Cross Sections_

Just before cutting into sticks, the freshly cut end of at least one bolt from each tree will be photographed. A scale of inches will be shown in this photograph.

_Specimens_

Three photographs will be made of a group consisting of four 2"

X 2" X 30" specimens chosen from the material from each locality. Two of these specimens will be representative of average growth, one of fast and one of slow growth. These photographs will show radial, tangential, and end surfaces for each specimen.

_Failures_

Typical and abnormal failures of material from each site will be photographed.

_Disposition of Material_

The specimens photographed to show typical and abnormal failures will be saved for purposes of exhibit until deemed by the person in charge of the laboratory to be of no further value.

SHRINKAGE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Appendix to Working Plan 124

PURPOSE OF WORK

It is the purpose of this work to secure data on the shrinkage and specific gravity of woods tested under Project 124. The figures to be obtained are for use as average working values rather than as the basis for a detailed study of the principles involved.

MATERIAL

The material will be taken from that provided for mechanical tests.

RADIAL AND TANGENTIAL SHRINKAGE

_Specimens_

_Preparation_: Two specimens 1 inch thick, 4 inches wide, and 1 inch long will be obtained from near the periphery of each "_d_"

bolt. These will be cut from the sector-shaped sections left after securing the material for the mechanical tests or from disks cut from near the end of the bolt. They will be taken from adjoining pieces chosen so that the results will be comparable for use in determining radial and tangential shrinkage. (When a disk is used, care must be taken that it is green and has not been affected by the shrinkage and checking near the end of the bolt.)

One of these specimens will be cut with its width in the radial direction and will be used for the determination of radial shrinkage. The other will have its width in the tangential direction and will be used for tangential shrinkage. These specimens will not be surfaced.

_Marking_: The shrinkage specimens will retain the shipment and piece numbers and marks of the bolts from which they are taken, and will have the additional mark _7_R or _7_T according as their widths are in the radial or tangential direction.

_Shrinkage measurements_: The shrinkage specimens will be carefully weighed and measured soon after cutting. Rings per inch, per cent sap, and per cent summer wood will be measured.

They will then be air-dried in the laboratory to constant weight, and afterward oven-dried at 100C. (212F.), when they will again be weighed and measured.

VOLUMETRIC SHRINKAGE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY

_Specimens_

_Selection and preparation_: Four 2" X 2" X 6" specimens will be cut from the mechanical test sticks of each "_d_" bolt; also from each of the composite bolts used in getting a comparison of green and air-dry. One of these specimens will be taken from near the pith and one from near the periphery; the other two will be representative of the average growth of the bolt. The sides of these specimens will be surfaced and the ends smooth sawn.

_Marking_: Each specimen will retain the shipment, piece, and stick numbers and mark of the stick from which it is cut, and will have the additional mark "_S_."

_Manipulation_: Soon after cutting, each specimen will be weighed and its volume will be determined by the method described below. The rings per inch and per cent summer wood, where possible, will be determined, and a carbon impression of the end of the specimen made. It will then be air-dried in the laboratory to a constant weight and afterward oven-dried at 100C. When dry, the specimen will be taken from the oven, weighed, and a carbon impression of its end made. While still warm the specimen will be dipped in hot paraffine. The volume will then be determined by the following method:

On one pan of a pair of balances is placed a container having in it water enough for the complete submersion of the test specimen. This container and water is balanced by weights placed on the other scale pan. The specimen is then held completely submerged and not touching the container while the scales are again balanced. The weight required to balance is the weight of water displaced by the specimen, and hence if in grams is numerically equal to the volume of the specimen in cubic centimetres. A diagrammatic sketch of the arrangement of this apparatus is shown in Fig. 51.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--Diagram of specific gravity apparatus, showing a balance with container (_c_) filled with water in which the test block (_b_) is held submerged by a light rod (_a_) which is adjustable vertically and provided with a sharp point to be driven into the specimen.]

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